East Asian women Beauty feminism

East Asian women Beauty feminism


Although China has a Confucian culture in some respects, Chinese and Japanese women aesthetic standards have historically been different. Dating back to the Heian period (794-1185), Japanese prostitutes dyed their teeth black (known as Daikoku) as adults. This custom is prevalent in nobles and warrior families, and can be seen in a large number of temples, but it is rare among ordinary people. The practice of blackening teeth continued until the Meiji Restoration (1868). [15]

In the Heian period, hair accessories and clothing were very important. The eyebrows are plucked and replaced by broad, dark strokes drawn across the upper part of the forehead, a practice known as hakimayo. Hair must be at least as long as it touches the ground when sitting. The use of yellow makeup known as oshiroi is common, with an emphasis on the color scheme of Heian period clothing — junhito for women and suikan for men — because of its seasonal and symbolic meaning.



Tokyo Celebrated (published by Kazumasa Ogawa in Kanda-ku, Tokyo, Japan, June 25, 1895)
Scholar and art critic Okakura Kakuzu stated in a 1905 compilation of lectures that the main foundations of modern Japanese beauty are:

…to be beautiful, a woman must be no more than five feet tall, with fairer skin and well-proportioned features; a head covered with long and thick black hair; an oval face with a high and narrow nose; rather large eyes, with large dark brown pupils and thick Thick eyelids, a small mouth, hidden behind red lips, but not thin, and even rows of small white teeth. The ears are not very small; and the eyebrows are long and bushy, forming two horizontal but slightly curved lines, leaving space between them and the eyes… Very high and very low foreheads are considered unattractive. [16]

Research suggests that Japanese aesthetic ideals may be more influenced by personality than Korean or Chinese cultures. Compared to typical Japanese standards of beauty, the Japanese are more receptive to the ugly, imperfect, uncertain, pluralistic and deconstructed of what is considered “beautiful”. [18] This is unacceptable to Japanese women. Their society blames them for their “flaws” and instead uses their features to enhance their individuality with moles, birthmarks, eye shape, accepted teeth and facial features. In the late 20th century, the rise of the Ganguro and Gyaru subcultures was seen as rebellious and contrary to Japanese ideals of female beauty. These trends feature spray tans, hair dyed blonde or orange, and brightly colored contact lenses. [19] Women who embraced these fashion trends faced extreme social pressure from family members and schools. [20]

South Korea

South Korea is known for its strict beauty standards, which has led to a significant growth of the Korean skincare industry. [21] Korean beauty standards are defined as “very fair skin, large eyes with double eyelids, small nose with high bridge, pink lips”, small face and pointed chin. [22] As these standards were difficult to meet, cosmetic surgery became common in Korea. Yes, 2018 was the year with the highest plastic surgery rate per capita, and it is expected to increase in the future.

From 1990 to 2006

From 1990 to 2006, the number of specialized plastic surgeries in South Korea grew at an annual rate of 8.9 percent, and the majority of those undergoing these procedures were young adults. A 2004 survey found that of 1,565 female students, 25.4 percent had double eyelid surgery, 3.6 percent had nose surgery, and 1 percent had chin/cheekbone surgery. A survey conducted in South Korea in 2015 showed that 30% of young Korean women aged 19-29 could undergo plastic surgery. Due to the rise of idol culture, South Korea’s aesthetic concept has undergone tremendous changes, and women associate beauty with career success. In the workplace, women are expected to be physically attractive. Some companies require portraits when submitting their resumes, and applicants usually choose according to their appearance, professional level and

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